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The following references established that various organisms have ice nucleation activity
Bacteria as ice nucleators: (Kawahara et al. 1993; Kawahara et al. 1995; Kim et al. 1987; Lindow 1983; Maki et al. 1974; Maki and Willoughby 1978; Morris et al. 1992; Wallin et al. 1979; Watanabe and Arai 1986; Worland and Block 1999)
Fungi as ice nucleators: (free-living fungi and lichen symbionts) (Kieft 1988; Kieft and Ahmadjian 1989; Kieft, Ruscetti 1990; Pouleur et al. 1992; Richard et al. 1996)

Algae as ice nucleators: (Worland and Lukesova 2000)

INA in plant tissues (Brush et al. 1994; Diehl et al. 2002; Gross et al. 1988; Krog et al. 1979)

INA in animal tissues: (Aunaas 1982; Costanzo and Lee 1995; Costanzo and Lee 1996; Duman et al. 1995; Duman 2001; Lee and Costanzo 1998)

Aunaas, T. 1982. Nucleating agents in the haemolymph of an intertidal mollusc tolerant to freezing. Experientia 38: 1456-1457

Brush, R. A., Griffith, M., Mlynarz, A. 1994. Characterization and quantification of intrinsic ice nucleators in winter rye (Secale cereale) leaves. Plant Physiology 104: 725-735.

Costanzo, J. P., Lee, R. E. 1996. Ice nucleation in freeze-tolerant vertebrates – Mini-review. Cryo – Letters 17: 111-118.

Costanzo, J. P., Lee, R. E., Jr. 1995. Supercooling and ice nucleation in vertebrate ectotherms. Biological Ice Nucleation and its Applications. Lee, R. E., Jr., Warren, G. J., Gusta, L. V. St. Paul, APS Press: 221-237.

Diehl, K., Matthias-Maser, S., Jaenicke, R., Mitra, S. K. 2002. The ice nucleating ability of pollen: Part II. Laboratory studies in immersion and contact freezing modes. Atmos. Res. 61: 125-133 (

Duman, J. 2001. Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63: 327-357

Duman, J. G., Olsen, T. M., Yeung, K. L., Jerva, F. 1995. The roles of ice nucleators in cold tolerant invertebrates. Biological Ice Nucleation and its Applications. Lee, R. E., Jr., Warren, G. J., Gusta, L. V. St. Paul, APS Press: 201-219.

Gross, D. C., Proebsting, E. L., Jr., MacCrindale-Zimmerman, H. 1988. Development, distribution, and characteristics of intrinsic, nonbacterial ice nuclei in Prunus wood. Plant. Physiol. 88: 915-922

Kawahara, H., Mano, Y., Obata, H. 1993. Purification and characterization of extracellular ice-nucleating matter from Erwinia uredovora KUIN-3. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 57: 1429-1432.

Kawahara, H., Tanaka, Y., Obata, H. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a novel ice-nucleating bacterium, Pseudomonas sp, KUIN4, which has stable activity in acidic solution. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 59: 1528-1532.

Kieft, T. L. 1988. Ice nucleation activity in lichens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 1678-1681.

Kieft, T. L., Ahmadjian, V. 1989. Biological ice nucleation activity in lichen mycobionts and photobionts. Lichenologist 21: 355-362.

Kieft, T. L., Ruscetti, T. 1990. Characterization of biological ice nuclei from a lichen. J. Bacteriol. 172: 3519-3523.

Kim, H. K., Orser, C., Lindow, S. E., Sands, D. C. 1987. Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens strains active in ice nucleation. Plant Dis. 71: 994-997

Krog, J. O., Zachariassen, K. E., Larsen, B., Smidsrod, O. 1979. Thermal buffering in Afro-alpine plants due to nucleating agent-inducing water freezing. Nature 282: 300-301.

Lee, R. E., Costanzo, J. P. 1998. Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals Annual Review of Physiology 60: 55-72

Lindow, S. E. 1983. The role of bacterial ice nucleation in frost injury to plants. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 21: 363-384.

Maki, L. R., Gaylan, E. L., Chang-Chien, M. M., Caldwell, D. R. 1974. Ice nucleation induced by Pseudomonas syringae. Appl. Microbiol. 28: 456-459.

Maki, L. R., Willoughby, K. J. 1978. Bacteria as biogenic sources of freezing nuclei. J. Appl. Meteorol. 17: 1049-1053.

Morris, C. E., Wen, A.-M., Xu, X.-H., Di, Y.-B. 1992. Ice nucleation-active bacteria on Chinese cabbage in northern China: Population dynamics and characteristics and their possible role in storage decay. Phytopathology 82: 739-746. (

Pouleur, S., Richard, C., Martin, J., Antoun, H. 1992. Ice nucleation activity in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum. App. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 2960-2964

Richard, C., Martin, J., Pouleur, S. 1996. Ice nucleation activity identified in some phytopathogenic Fusarium species. Phytoprotection 77: 83-92

Wallin, J. R., Loonan, D. V., Gardner, C. A. C. 1979. Erwinia stewartii: an ice nucleus for frost damage to maize seedlings. Plant Dis. Rep. 63: 751-752.

Watanabe, M., Arai, S. 1986. Freezing of water in the presence of the ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia ananas, and its application for efficient freeze-drying of foods. Agric. Biol. Chem. 51: 557-563.

Worland, M. R., Block, W. 1999. Ice-nucleating bacteria from the guts of two sub-Antarctic beetles, Hydromedion sparsutum and Perimylops antarcticus (Perimylopidae) Cryobiology 38: 60-67

Worland, M. R., Lukesova, A. 2000. The effect of feeding on specific soil algae on the cold-hardiness of two Antarctic micro-arthropods (Alaskozetes antarcticus and Crytopygus antarcticus) Polar Biol. 23: 766-774

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